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Baoji Lihua Nonferrous Metals Co., Ltd.
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Baoji Lihua Non-ferrous Metal Co., Ltd. was established in 2006. The company relies on theadvantages of Baoji industry and its strong technical support. It has been engaged in theproduction and sales of non-ferrous metals such as titanium, tantalum and nickel for many years.The factory covers an area of 800 square meters. The factory has strong technical equipment. There are more than 20 sets of CNC machines, milling and drilling machines, and the annualproduction value is more than 30 million ...
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Influencing Factors And Improving Methods Of Superelasticity Of β Titanium Alloy
The maximum recovery strain (εr) of Ti-Ni alloy can reach 8.0%, showing excellent shape memory effect and superelasticity, and is widely used as bone plates, vascular scaffolds and orthodontic frames. However, when Ti-Ni alloy is implanted into the human body, it can release Ni+ which is sensitizing and carcinogenic, leading to serious health problems. β titanium alloy has good biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and low elastic modulus, and can get better strength and plasticity match after reasonable heat treatment, it is a kind of metal material that can be used for hard tissue replacement. At the same time, reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation exists in some β titanium alloys, showing certain superelastic and shape memory effects, which further expands its application in the biomedical field. The development of β-titanium alloy which is composed of non-toxic elements and has high elasticity has become a research hotspot of medical titanium alloy in recent years. At present, many β-titanium alloys with superelasticity and shape memory effects at room temperature have been developed, such as Ti-Mo, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr and Ti-Nb alloys. However, the superelastic recovery of these alloys is small, such as the maximum εr of Ti-(26, 27)Nb (26 and 27 are atomic fractions, if not specially marked, the titanium alloy components involved in this paper are atomic fractions) is only 3.0%, much lower than Ti-Ni alloy. How to further improve the superelasticity of β titanium alloy is an urgent problem to be solved. In this paper, the factors affecting the superelasticity of β titanium alloy are analyzed, and the methods for improving the superelasticity are summarized systematically. Superelasticity 1.1 Reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation of 1β titanium alloys The superelasticity of β titanium alloys is usually caused by reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation, that is, the β phase of the body-centered cubic lattice structure is transformed into the α" phase of the rhombic lattice structure when the strain is loaded. During unloading, the α" phase changes into β phase and the strain recovers. In the superelastic β titanium alloy, the β phase of the body-centered cubic structure is called "austenite" and the α phase of the rhombic structure is called "martensite". The beginning temperature of martensitic phase transition, the end temperature of martensitic phase transition, the beginning temperature of austenite phase transition and the end temperature of austenite phase transition are expressed by Ms, Mf, As and Af, and Af is usually several kelvin to tens of Kelvin higher than Ms. The loading and unloading process of β titanium alloy with stress-induced martensitic transformation is shown in Figure 1. First occurs an elastic deformation of the β phase, which transforms into the α" phase in the form of shear when the load reaches the critical stress (σSIM) required to induce the martensitic phase transition. As the load increases, the martensitic phase transition (β→α") continues until the stress required for the end (or end) of the martensitic phase transition is reached, and then the elastic deformation of the α" phase occurs. When the load further increases beyond the critical stress required for β phase slip (σCSS), the plastic deformation of β phase occurs. During unloading, in addition to the elastic recovery of α" phase and β phase, α"→β phase transition also causes strain recovery. The superelastic or shape memory effect of the alloy depends on the relationship between the phase transition temperature and the test temperature. When Af is slightly lower than the test temperature, the α phase induced by stress during loading undergoes α →β phase transition during unloading, and the strain corresponding to the stress-induced phase transition can completely recover, and the alloy exhibits superelasticity. When the test temperature is between As and Af, a part of α phase is transformed into β phase during unloading, and the strain corresponding to the stress-induced phase transition is recovered, and the alloy exhibits certain superelasticity. If the alloy is further heated above Af, the remaining α" phase is transformed into β phase, the phase transition strain is completely recovered, and the alloy exhibits certain shape memory effect. When the test temperature is lower than As, the stress-induced martensitic transformation strain does not automatically recover at the test temperature, and the alloy does not have superelasticity. However, when the alloy is heated above Af, the phase change strain is completely restored, and the alloy exhibits shape memory effect.
How To Deal With The Surface Defect Reaction Layer Of Titanium Plate And Titanium Rod
 Titanium plate and titanium rod surface reaction layer are the main factors affecting the physical and chemical properties of titanium work parts, before processing, it is necessary to achieve the complete removal of surface pollution layer and defect layer. Physical mechanical polishing of titanium plate and titanium rod surface polishing process:   1, blasting:   The blasting treatment of titanium wire castings is generally better with white and rigid jade spray, and the pressure of blasting is smaller than that of non-precious metals, and is generally controlled below 0.45MPa. Because, when the injection pressure is too high, the sand particles impact the titanium surface to produce a fierce spark, the temperature rise can react with the titanium surface, forming secondary pollution, affecting the surface quality. The time is 15-30 seconds and only the viscous sand on the casting surface is removed, the surface sintering layer and the partial oxidation layer can be removed. The rest of the surface reaction layer structure should be quickly removed by chemical pick-up method.   2, pickly washed:   Acid washing removes the surface reaction layer quickly and completely without contaminating the surface with other elements. HF-HCL system and HF-HNO3 acid wash can be used for titanium acid wash, but HF-HCL acid wash absorbs hydrogen, while HF-HNO3 acid wash absorbs hydrogen, can control the concentration of HNO3 to reduce hydrogen absorption, and can lighten the surface, the general concentration of HF in about 3%-5%, HNO3 concentration of about 15%-30%.  The surface reaction layer of titanium plate and titanium rod can completely remove the surface reaction layer of titanium by the method of acid washing after blasting.   Titanium plate and titanium rod surface reaction layer in addition to physical mechanical polishing, there are two kinds, respectively: 1. chemical polishing, 2. electrolyte polishing.   1, chemical polishing:   When chemical polishing, the purpose of flat polishing is achieved by the redox reaction of metal in the chemical medium. Its advantages are chemical polishing and metal hardness, polishing area and structural shape, where the contact with the polishing liquid are polished, do not need special complex equipment, easy to operate, more suitable for complex structure titanium protrusion bracket polishing. However, the process parameters of chemical polishing are difficult to control, which requires that the righteous teeth can have a good polishing effect without affecting the accuracy of the teeth. A better titanium chemical polishing solution is HF and HNO3 according to a certain proportion of preparation, HF is a reducing agent, can dissolve titanium, play a leveling effect, concentration of 10%, HNO3 oxidation effect, to prevent excessive dissolution of titanium and hydrogen absorption, at the same time can produce a bright effect. Titanium polishing liquid requires high concentration, low temperature, short polishing time (1 to 2min).   2, electrolyte polishing:   Also known as electrochemical polishing or anode dissolved polishing, due to the low conductivity of titanium alloy tube, oxidation performance is very strong, the use of hydro-acid electrolytes such as HF-H3PO4, HF-H2SO4 electrolytes on titanium can hardly polish, after the application of external voltage, titanium anode immediately oxidation, and the anode dissolving can not be carried out. However, the use of waterless chloride electrolyte at low voltage, titanium has a good polishing effect, small test pieces can get mirror polishing, but for complex repair can not achieve the purpose of full polishing, perhaps by changing the cathode shape and additional cathode method can solve this problem, still need to be further studied.
Advantages and applications of titanium anode plate
The advantages and applications of various titanium anode plates: ruthenium-titanium anode plate, ruthenium-iridium titanium anode plate, tantalum-iridium titanium anode plate, iridium-tin titanium anode plate. 1, ruthenium-titanium anode plate Product advantages: high current efficiency (chlorine or oxygen evolution environment), excellent corrosion resistance, long electrode life, electrode specifications and sizes can be designed according to user needs, electrode substrate can be reused many times, no pollution to the medium. Application fields: chlor-alkali industry, sodium hypochlorite industry, sewage treatment industry, fresh water disinfection 2, ruthenium-iridium titanium anode plate Advantages: The anode size is stable, the electrode spacing does not change during the electrolytic process, which can ensure that the electrolytic operation is carried out under the condition of stable tank voltage. Low working voltage, small power consumption, consumption can be reduced by about 20%. Titanium anodes have a long working life, and metal anodes are resistant to chlorine and alkali corrosion in the chlorine gas production industry by diaphragm method. It can overcome the problem of graphite anode and lead anode dissolution, avoid the pollution of electrolyte and cathode products, and improve the quality of products. Can improve the current density. For example, in the production of chlor-alkali by diaphragm method, the current density of graphite electrode is 8A/M2; The titanium anode can be multiplied to 17A/M2; In this way, in the case of the same electrolytic plant and electrolyzer, the output can be doubled. Strong corrosion resistance, can work in many corrosive, have special requirements of electrolytic media. The short-circuit problem after lead anode deformation can be avoided, thus improving current efficiency. Matrix titanium can be used repeatedly. Application fields: chlor-alkali industry, chlorine dioxide production, chlorate industry, hypochlorite industry, perchlorate production, hospital sewage treatment, persulfate production, food utensils disinfection, ionized water production 3. Titanium tantalum iridium anode plate Advantages: Metal is extracted by electrolysis in sulfuric acid solution, oxygen is precipitated on the anode, and selecting the appropriate anode material is a very important problem. Titanium electrode coated with tantalum series has low oxygen overpotential and is not corroded by electrolyte. Iridium oxide coatings show excellent electrolytic durability. The initial anode potential is 1.51V, and after 6000 hours, it is 1.64V, and the coating weight loss is 0mg/M2 The use of lead-based alloy electrodes in electrolytic production (containing Sb6% ~ 15%, or containing Ag1%), the lead anode will dissolve, consume the anode material, affect the life of the anode, and the lead dissolved in the solution will precipitate on the cathode to increase the lead impurities in the metal, reducing the quality of the product. Ruthenium coating will be seriously damaged under this condition, so it is not suitable for use. The initial anode potential was 1.48V, and 1000 hours later, it rose to 2.0V, and the anode had been passivated. Applications: electrolytic production of non-ferrous metals, disinfection of food utensils, electrolytic silver catalyst production, dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment of woolen mills, electrolysis manufacturing of copper foil, galvanized steel plate, chrome plating, electrolytic oxidation recovery of mercury, rhodium plating, palladium plating, gold plating, water electrolysis, salt melting electrolysis, battery production, cathode protection, ionized water production, printed circuit board, 4, iridium tin titanium anode plate Product advantages: high current efficiency (in chlorine or oxygen evolution environment), excellent corrosion resistance, long service life of the electrode, the size of the electrode can be designed according to user needs, the electrode substrate can be reused many times, no pollution to the medium. Application fields: chlor-alkali industry, aluminum foil, copper foil industry, industrial sewage treatment, ionized water production, organic electrochemical treatment and organic electrochemical synthesis, electrolytic purification treatment gas, seawater desalination, oxidant regeneration cycle.



Application of titanium alloy in space rocket
The development of high pulse thrust-weight ratio engines for advanced aerospace rocket technology products requires the use of titanium alloys with higher low temperature strength and plasticity. For this reason, the Metal Research Institute of the Russian "Composite Materials" joint-stock company is carrying out the process determination cycle of BT6c alloy for this project. This alloy is used to produce φ600mm die forgings with operating temperatures up to -200℃, plates for accumulators, bearing brackets and billets for pipe joints. At present, we are exploring ways to reduce the working temperature of the alloy to a 253'C, one of which is to obtain parts by particle metallurgy. This process can ensure that all parts of the billet have uniform fine crystal structure, and make the whole billet performance isotropic. Dense blank was prepared from BT6c alloy particles after hot isostatic pressing in α+β zone + one-stage roasting. The strength was 100MPa higher than that of BT5-1KT alloy, and the fatigue performance was higher. The most widely used titanium alloys in space rockets are two-phase alloys BT6c, BTl4, BT3-1, BT23, BTl6, BT9 (BT8), which are mainly used in heat treatment strengthening states. Annealing BT6c alloy can be used in accumulators, but the alloy is mostly used in the heat treatment strengthening state σb = 1050MPa - 1100MPa. Similar applications include BTl4 alloys σb = 1100MPa ~ 1150MPa. The annealed BTl4 alloy σb≥900MPa can be used as a tubular beam with a diameter of 80mm to 120mm, and is also used in the manufacture of fasteners operating at -196 ° C.  



Application of titanium and titanium alloys in ships
In particular, it has excellent corrosion resistance in chloride atmospheres such as seawater and oceans. The application of titanium material on ships can reduce the maintenance cost and life cycle cost of ships, reduce the weight of the hull, increase the payload, improve the reliability and tactical of ships, and is an ideal material for the shipbuilding industry. The main applications of titanium and its alloys in the field of ships are: pressure shell, hull structure, pipeline, valve and so on Accessories, power drives, heat exchangers, coolers/condensers, sonar hoods, etc. Titanium alloy for ship industry began in the 1960s, the current United States, Russia, Japan, China Countries, the United Kingdom, France and Germany are widely used. Compared with foreign countries, our ship titanium alloy There is still a big gap in application: the application part is small, the amount is small, the titanium used in foreign countries reaches 13%, and China is only applied in some sporadic parts, the proportion is less than 1%. Varieties, specifications are not perfect, China's previous titanium production in professional chemical plants, limited by equipment capacity, the production of varieties, specifications are limited, "dragon" required titanium alloy can only be imported from Russia. Processing and manufacturing technology is also relatively backward. Related to titanium alloy material specifications are: castings, forgings, plates, bars, pipes, wire; The titanium alloy preparation processes involved are: casting process, forging process, welding process, cold forming process, hot forming process, heat treatment process, mechanical processing process, surface treatment process, dissimilar metal insulation treatment process. Compared with aviation materials, the product size and single weight of Marine materials are larger. China's previous titanium industry owners to serve the aviation industry, the use of professional chemical production, production equipment and capacity is limited, titanium products product size can not meet the needs of ships, many types of titanium manufacturers can not provide, such as wide and thick plates, large caliber seamless pipe, profiles, complex castings and so on. If the specialized production plant is fully equipped with the production equipment required for titanium materials for ships, it will greatly push up the cost of products, which is not conducive to the promotion and application of titanium and titanium alloys in the shipbuilding industry.